Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1896 – 30 January 1979) was a prominent political and spiritual leader of India and the Indian independence movement. He was the pioneer leader of retaliation against tyranny through satyagraha, the foundation of this concept was laid on the principle of total non-violence which gave freedom to India and for the movement of civil rights and freedom of people all over the world inspired.
He is known by the general public in the world as Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma or great soul is an honorific word in Sanskrit language. Gandhi was first addressed by the name of Mahatma by Rajvaidya Jeevaram Kalidas in 1915. He is also remembered by the name of Bapu (in Gujarati language as BAUPU Bapu i.e. father). Subhash Chandra Bose sought his blessings and best wishes for the soldiers of the Azad Hind Fauj while addressing him as the Father of the Nation in a telecast of the name of Gandhiji from Rangoon Radio on 7 July 1979. His birthday on 2 October every year in India. It is celebrated as Gandhi Jayanti and in the name of International Nonviolence Day all over the world.
Gandhi first started a Satyagraha to fight for the civil rights of the people of the Indian community in South Africa as a migrant lawyer. He returned to India in 1915. He then united the peasants, laborers and urban laborers here to raise their voice against excessive land tax and discrimination. After taking over the reins of the Indian National Congress in 1921, he organized a number of programs to protest against un-touchability for the relief of poverty, expansion of women’s rights, creation of religious and ethnic unity and self-reliance throughout the country. In all of these, the program of achieving Swaraj was the salvation of foreign rule. Gandhiji gained considerable fame from the Salt Satyagraha in 1930 and after this in 1972, the British Quit India Movement in protest against the salt tax imposed on Indians by the British Government. South Africa and India on various occasions had to spend several years in jail.
Gandhiji followed non-violence and truth in all circumstances and also advocated for everyone to follow them. He lived his life in the Sabarmati Ashram and wore a traditional Indian dress dhoti and a shawl made of cotton, which he himself made by spinning cotton on a charkha by hand. He ate simple vegetarian food and kept a long fast for self-purification.
Truth – Truth is paramount among the basic elements of Gandhism; He believed that truth should be the pivot of any political institution, social institution etc. He must follow the principles of truth before taking any of his political decisions.
His loyalty to truth, non-violence, human freedom, equality and justice can be best understood from examples in his personal life.
Gandhiji said, “I have nothing new to teach the world.” Truth and non-violence are as old in the world as our mountains.“
Vegetarian attitude – Gandhiji used to be a frutarian from the beginning, but started drinking goat milk on the advice of his doctor. He never used to consume milk products because earlier he believed that milk is the natural diet of man And he was disgusted with cow’s cheering, and the most important reason was the oath which he made to his late mother.
Brahmacharya – This decision was strongly influenced by the philosophy of Brahmacharya. Spiritual and behavioral purity is largely associated with celibacy and asceticism. Gandhi saw celibacy as the primary basis for approaching God and recognizing himself. In his autobiography, he narrates his libido and Isharya’s struggles with his childhood bride Kasturba. He realized that It is their personal obligation to remain celibate so that they can learn the love of lust instead.
For Gandhi, celibacy meant “control of thoughts, words and actions within the senses”.
Simplicity – Gandhiji believed that if a person is employed in social service, then he should move towards a simple life, which he considered necessary for celibacy. Their simplicity forced them to abandon the Western lifestyle and began to spread to South Africa, which they called “bringing oneself to a state of emptiness”, which involved spending unnecessarily, adopting a simple lifestyle and washing their own clothes. Is necessary. On one occasion, also return the gift provided to the birthright for his continued service to the Samudhis.
Confidence – Gandhi was born in Hinduism, most of the principles throughout his life originated from Hinduism. Like ordinary Hindus, they believed in all religions equally, and so they rejected all arguments and efforts for conversion. He was knowledgeable of Brahm Gyan and read all the major religions in detail. He has said the following things about Hinduism-
Hinduism, as I understand it, completely satisfies my soul, submerges my soul, … When doubt surrounds me, when despair stands before me, When light rises on the horizon Not even a ray is visible, then I go to the shelter of ‘Bhagavad Gita’ and some of its verses comfort me, and I smile instantly even in the midst of extreme sadness. Many external tragedies have happened in my life and if they have not left any direct or indelible impact on me, then I give credit to the teachings of ‘Bhagavad Gita’.
Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was shot dead in the evening of 30 January 1948 at Birla Bhawan in New Delhi. They used to pray every evening. On the evening of 30 January 1948, as he was going for evening prayers, Nathuram Godse first touched his feet and then fired three bullets at him from the front with a Barreta pistol. At that time Gandhi was surrounded by his followers.
In this case, eight people including Nathuram Godse were accused in the conspiracy to murder. Out of these eight persons, three accused Shankar Kistaiya, Digambar Barge, Veer Savarkar, Digambar Barge were acquitted for becoming a government witness. Shankar Kistaiya was forgiven on appeal to the High Court.
Due to no evidence found against Veer Savarkar, the court acquitted him of the crime. Later on the death of Savarkar, the Government of India issued a stamp in his honor.